“The elementary qualities are four, and any four terms can be combined in six couples. Contraries, however, refuse to be coupled: for it is impossible for the same thing to be hot and cold, or moist and dry. Hence it is evident that the ‘couplings’ of the elementary qualities will be four: hot with dry and moist with hot, and again cold with dry and cold with moist. And these four couples have attached themselves to the apparently ‘simple’ bodies (Fire, Air, Water, and Earth) in a manner consonant with theory.” – Aristotle¹
It’s amazing how universal some concepts are. Cultures all around the world have separately developed music and dance, religion and deities, an understanding of minerals and the elements.
The four elements of Earth, Air, Water, and Fire have been a documented part of Western civilization since 350 BC. Ancient Egypt, Babylon, and Buddhists recognized them as well. Native Americans use them. Many of…
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